Advances in computer technology are now so profound that the arithmetic capability and repertoire of computers can and should be expanded. Nowadays the elementary floating-point operations +, -, x, / give computed results that coincide with the rounded exact result for any operands. Advanced computer arithmetic extends this accuracy requirement to all operations in the usual product spaces of computation: the real and complex vector spaces as well as their interval correspondents. This enhances the mathematical power of the digital computer considerably. A new computer operation, the scalar product, is fundamental to the development of advanced computer arithmetic.
This paper studies the design of arithmetic units for advanced computer arithmetic. Scalar product units are developed for different kinds of computers like personal computers, workstations, mainframes, super computers or digital signal processors. The new expanded computational capability is gained at modest cost. The units put a methodology into modern computer hardware which was available on old calculators before the electronic computer entered the scene. In general the new arithmetic units increase both the speed of computation as well as the accuracy of the computed result. The circuits developed in this paper show that there is no way to compute an approximation of a scalar product faster than the correct result.
A collection of constructs in terms of which a source language may accommodate advanced computer arithmetic is described in the paper. The development of programming languages in the context of advanced computer arithmetic is reviewed. The simulation of the accurate scalar product on existing, conventional processors is discussed. Finally the theoretical foundation of advanced computer arithmetic is reviewed and a comparison with other approaches to achieving higher accuracy in computation is given. Shortcomings of existing processors and standards are discussed.